By David E. Watters
It is a finished grammatical documentation of Kham, a formerly undescribed language from west-central Nepal, belonging to the Tibeto-Burman language kinfolk. The language has an strange constitution, containing a couple of features which are of fast relevance to present paintings on linguistic concept, together with cut up ergativity and its demonstrative method. Its verb morphology has implications for the knowledge of the historical past of the whole Tibeto-Burman relatives. The booklet, in response to huge fieldwork, presents copious examples in the course of the exposition. will probably be a priceless source for typologists and basic linguists alike.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Kham (Cambridge Grammatical Descriptions)
3 NASAL: ‘to milk’ ‘bad tasting’ ‘place’ püî:püï: püo:- ‘to be green’ ‘plugged’ ‘shoulder’ b. VÓ: tu:- ‘Taka village’ ‘spicy’ tüï: tüu:- ‘to one side’ ‘to drive a stake’ c. ki:ka: ku- ‘to plow’ ‘a crow’ ‘to smoke’ küî:küa: küu: ‘to wait’ ‘meal’ ‘hole’ Diphthongs Diphthongs are similar to long vowels in that two vowels occur in sequence in the same syllable. With long vowels, two identical vowels are geminated; with diphthongs the two vowels are from different parts of the oral cavity. The mid central vowel /˙/ has a one-way relationship with front and back high vowels /i/ and /u/, forming only the diphthongs /˙i/ and /˙u/.
An allophone of /k/, for example, that occurs preceding the front vowels /i/ and /e/ is more fronted than one that occurs preceding back vowels. 4 Also, stop consonants in the coda of a syllable are unreleased. Voiceless stops occurring in the coda of VC and CVC syllables become voiced when followed by the nominalizing suffix -o. 3 a. t˙pb. cepc. bo/ ‘drummer’ ‘rider’ ‘gatherer’ Fricatives and affricates (sibilants) There are two fricatives – /s/ and /z/ – and three affricates – /c/, /j/, and an aspirate counterpart for /c/, namely /ch/.
Case marking alignment The general alignment of grammatical case markers in Kham is ‘split ergative,’ based on a person split in which first (1ST ) and second (2ND) person rank high on a nominal hierarchy, and third (3RD) person ranks low. The case marking split has radical repercussions in verb morphology as well. 1 Language typology 3 notions of identifiability. 3 Constituent order Kham has a basic constituent order of AOV, SV in both main and dependent clauses. The attendant ‘harmonic orders’ in phrase level syntax also occur: DemN, NumN, GN, AN, and RelN (where for Kham, A is a type of RelCl).
A Grammar of Kham (Cambridge Grammatical Descriptions) by David E. Watters