By Jeroen Wiedenhof
A desirable description of a world language, A Grammar of Mandarin combines extensive views with illuminating intensity. full of examples from daily conversations, it goals to enable the language converse for itself. The booklet opens with an outline of the language state of affairs and a radical account of Mandarin speech sounds. 9 middle chapters discover syntactic, morphological and lexical dimensions. a last bankruptcy lines the chinese language personality script from oracle-bone inscriptions to today’s electronic pens.
This paintings will cater to language freshmen and linguistic experts alike. effortless reference is equipped via greater than 80 tables, figures, appendices, and a word list. the most textual content is enriched by means of sections in finer print, delivering extra research and mirrored image. instance sentences are absolutely glossed, translated, and defined from various angles, with a prepared eye for contemporary linguistic switch. This grammar, briefly, finds a Mandarin language in complete swing.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Mandarin
For the status of the neutral tone also compare Cheng (1973: 54-83). 3 The transcription of tone Beijing Mandarin tones are represented in the Pinyin transcription by means of TONE SYMBOLS added as a diacritical mark above vowels. Like tone letters, tone symbols are stylized renderings of the pitch level trajectory of each tone. g. in bā ‘rake’. The second tone is written as a diagonal line rising to the right, or acute accent ´, as in bá ‘pull up’. g. bǎ ‘hold’. The fourth tone is transcribed with a falling diagonal line, or grave accent `, as in bà ‘father’.
Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Central Asia, Mongolia and Manchuria have fallen within the Chinese cultural sphere of infuence for many centuries. The languages of these regions accordingly contain signifcant numbers of loanwords deriving from diferent varieties of Chinese. The presence of loanwords is of little structural import, because loanwords are usually modifed to conform to the phonology and grammar of the borrowing language. Genetically, the said languages have little in common with Chinese. Korean and Japanese are remote relatives within the Altaic family, which also comprises Mongolian and Manchu.
English may express distinct meanings by changing a consonant, as in bitter and fitter, or by swapping vowels, as in bitter and butter. 1. Mandarin tones are written by means of tone symbols, such as ¯ and ˇ in these examples. 2 Tone 13 Even though English makes use of pitch variations, their function difers from that of tones. For example, we may ask Right? , the pitch falls instead. g. The meeting is at five, not at nine. 10) which is common to all languages. 1 Minimal contrasts in English and Mandarin Different consonant Different vowel Different tone English bitter – fitter bitter – butter (no contrast) Mandarin dānzi ‘list’ – tānzi ‘booth’ dānzi ‘list’ – dūnzi ‘block’ dānzi ‘list’ – dǎnzi ‘courage’ Tone languages are spoken all over the world.
A Grammar of Mandarin by Jeroen Wiedenhof