By Paul A. Horgen, Alan Castle (auth.), Professor Dr. Frank Kempken (eds.)
During this quantity the relevance of fungi for agriculture is mentioned in 4 sections. the 1st one 'Food and Fodder construction' issues the appliance and strength of mushrooms, straw enrichment, and meals or crop spoilage. the following part 'Mycotoxins and detoxing' offers with the biosynthesis of mycotoxins and using fungi in organopollutant degradation. a wide part entitled 'Disease keep watch over, Diagnostic, and administration' covers quite a few facets of organic keep an eye on (fungi, bugs, and weeds), diagnostics with emphasis at the instance of Magnaporthegrisea, and disorder administration with concentrate on the $64000 fungal pathogens Phoma, Fusarium, rusts and powdery mold. The final part 'Update on Host-Parasite Interactions' discusses sign transduction, avirulence determinants, phytotoxins, telephone wall degradation, and the coevolution of pathogenic fungi and grass hosts.
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Extra info for Agricultural Applications
Twenty-two strains, including species of Gymnopilus, Irpex, Lentinus, Oudemansiella, Peniophora and Psilocybe, decomposed more than 50% of lignin and 10 of them increased in vitro digestibility of the substrate by 30 units. The highest degradation of lignin was observed with Lentinus crinitus (80%, 60days) and the highest increase in in vitro digestibility was caused by Peniophora utriculosa (36 units, 30days). Screening of different species of white-rot fungi by evaluation of the changes in the lignin and polysaccharide contents of the wheat straw cell walls and investigation of the effect of wheat straw treatment by white-rot fungi was carried out in experiments by Jale et al.
Proc 1st Int Seminar on Mushroom Science, Wageningen, Pudoc, pp 135-139 Royer JC, Hintz WEA, Horgen PA (1991) Efficient protoplast formation and regeneration and electrophoretic karyotype analysis of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. In: Van Griensven LJLD (ed) Genetics and breeding of Agaricus. Proc 1st Int Seminar on Mushroom Seience, Wageningen, Pudoc, pp 52-56 Royer JC, Hintz WEA, Kerrigan RW, Horgen PA (1992) Electrophoretic karyotype analysis of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus.
Lignin in the cell wall is the largest source of phenolic material in plants (Jung and Fahey 1983). Straw contains p-coumaric and ferulic acid units that have partially common structures with lignin monomers (Lapierre et al. 1989). The phenolic acids are ester-linked to the carbohydrates and also ether-linked to lignin, thus forming a stabilizing bridge in the cell walls (Iiyama et al. 1990). White-rot fungi are able to totally degrade lignin into CO 2 and H 2 0 (Moreira et al. 1998). They are able to perform different patterns of degradation of lignocellulosic substrates depending on their species and on the environmental conditions in wh ich the mycelium grows (Blanchette and Reid 1986).
Agricultural Applications by Paul A. Horgen, Alan Castle (auth.), Professor Dr. Frank Kempken (eds.)