By William I. Woods (auth.), Johannes Lehmann, Dirse C. Kern, Brund Glaser, William I. Wodos (eds.)
Amazonian darkish Earths will not be just a testomony to the vanished civilizations of the Amazon Basin, yet could provide the reply to how the big, subtle societies have been in a position to maintain extensive agriculture in an atmosphere with usually infertile soils. in the community often called Terra Preta de Indio or Indian black earth, those anomalous soils are even this day fertile and hugely effective. even though truly linked to pre-European settlements questions stay no matter if the darkish Earths have been deliberately produced or simply a spinoff of habitation actions. This booklet offers a finished evaluation of our present figuring out of those interesting soils: their foundation, houses, and administration via time. those new and multidisciplinary views by way of major specialists on Amazonian darkish Earths may perhaps pave the way in which for the subsequent revolution of soil administration within the humid tropics.
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Additional resources for Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin Properties Management
Pottery sherds and stone tools are thus the discards of humans who came to use these soils because they were naturally fertile. , 1999), and this confirmed earlier perceptions that ADEs represent human transformations of upland, non-floodplain soils that were originally infertile (Gourou, 1949; Smith, 1980). Our discussion here thus concentrates on the question of which human influences led to the formation of ADEs. One very important distinction has to be made in this respect: The fact that current scholarship confirms the human origin of ADEs by no means necessarily indicates that they were intentionally created, but this is still a possibility.
2001). And, Lake Tefé is said to have had large indigenous populations in the seventeenth century (Acuña, 1942). Without rich alluvial soils, long-term agriculture may have been entirely dependent upon Dark Earth (ADE) technology. 3. PRE-EUROPEAN RIVERINE SETTLEMENT AND CULTIVATION The prevailing image of pre-European cultivation in upland Amazonian forests (terra firme) is that of shifting cultivation with periods of short cropping and long fallowing. This is the dominant pattern for both native peoples and settlers today.
Lehmann, et al. ), Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management, 29-50. © 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 30 AMAZONIAN DARK EARTHS resource management correlated with this history; and third, we relate the development of ADE formation to the emergence of fully sedentary life in some portions of Amazônia. Although we do not draw any final overarching conclusions about the origin of ADEs, we hope this chapter provides a brief overview of recent advances in ADE research, as seen from an archaeological perspective.
Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin Properties Management by William I. Woods (auth.), Johannes Lehmann, Dirse C. Kern, Brund Glaser, William I. Wodos (eds.)