By Gene E. Likens, F. Herbert Bormann (auth.), Gene E. Likens (eds.)
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Extra resources for An Ecosystem Approach to Aquatic Ecology: Mirror Lake and Its Environment
Hence the explanation for the decline in these two basic cations is precipitation at Hubbard Brook. The volume-weighted annual concentrations unknown. The pattern for K+ is largely deterfor some ions in precipitation have changed sig- mined by the values in 1963-65, a drought penificantly since the beginning of our study in riod. B-8 and 9). Most notably, based on regression analysis, Ca2+ has de- concentrations of the chemical components in creased by 87%, Mg2+ by 81%, NH4+ by 42% precipitation are highly skewed; small concenand SOl- by 35%.
The vertical bars are ± one standard deviation of the mean. 0 0 Streamflow 20 E u 10 0 A SON 0 F M A M Month cause for the hump (1968-69 to 1973-74) in the otherwise rather consistent pattern during the period of our measurements. B-14). Mass Output of Chemicals The geologic output (Chapter /) of dissolved chemicals for the HBEF is calculated by multiplying measured concentrations of each substance in stream water by the volume of streamflow. Outputs are expressed as kilograms or equivalents per hectare of watershed-ecosystems.
WINTER Understanding the physiographic setting of a lake is basic to understanding the physical, chemical and biologic processes that act within that setting. For example, knowledge of the movement of water overland, in streams, and through the subsurface near a lake is of primary importance in understanding processes acting upon and within the lake. The two physiographic characteristics of the land that have a major part in controlling the movement of water are geology and topography. Surface runoff is dependent on infiltration, which is related to soil characteristics and parent rock, as well as on the slope of the land, development of drainage patterns and •'channel characteristics of streams.
An Ecosystem Approach to Aquatic Ecology: Mirror Lake and Its Environment by Gene E. Likens, F. Herbert Bormann (auth.), Gene E. Likens (eds.)