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By Richard Cleasby, Volundr Lars Agnarsson, Gudbrand Vigfusson

The main entire and famous previous Norse to English Dictionary. First released in 1874, this 792 web page model contains the Addendum.

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Additional info for An Icelandic-English Dictionary, by Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson

Example text

3). This may be called the 'data gathering' phase, and is where any materials, instruments or apparatus for measurement are used and standard procedures applied. Later, in Part III (Chap. 3). That is the 'scoring' phase, involving often some 'data analysis' where scores and categorisations for each case on variables of interest are extracted from the data as gathered, perhaps with further use of instruments or machines. A useful way of getting an overview of ways of data gathering as part of what is necessary to arrive at quantifications of linguistic and other variables is to look at them in four general categories.

Stylistics: Kenny (1982). Phonetics/Phonology: Ohala & Jaeger (1986: especially Chap. 1). Grammar: Greenbaum & Quirk (1970). 1 Introducing the Four Approaches Let us now turn to the methodologically crucial matter of how the tremendous variety of variables hinted at in Chapter 1 can be quantified, whether for R or T purposes. For convenience we treat this 'operationalisation' as usually involving two major phases, though sometimes one or the other seems so minimal as to be hardly noticeable as a separate activity.

Hughes, 1989). It invests quantification with a further possible function, which might be called directive, and which it tends to have whether you intend it or not: to influence teachers and learners to concentrate on one thing rather than the other, in the foreknowledge of the kind of variables that will be quantified later for assessment. This can be a more effective way of determining what is taught than setting out conventional detailed syllabuses and lists of objectives, and tends to make those who decide what to quantify in the T context the masters rather than the servants of the overall pedagogical process.

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An Icelandic-English Dictionary, by Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson by Richard Cleasby, Volundr Lars Agnarsson, Gudbrand Vigfusson


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