By Dougal Drysdale(auth.)
Chapter 1 hearth technology and Combustion (pages 1–34):
Chapter 2 warmth move (pages 35–82):
Chapter three Limits of Flammability and Premixed Flames (pages 83–119):
Chapter four Diffusion Flames and hearth Plumes (pages 121–179):
Chapter five regular Burning of drinks and Solids (pages 181–223):
Chapter 6 Ignition: The Initiation of Flaming Combustion (pages 225–275):
Chapter 7 unfold of Flame (pages 277–315):
Chapter eight Spontaneous Ignition inside of Solids and Smouldering Combustion (pages 317–348):
Chapter nine The Pre?Flashover Compartment hearth (pages 349–386):
Chapter 10 The Post?Flashover Compartment hearth (pages 387–439):
Chapter eleven Smoke: Its Formation, Composition and stream (pages 441–474):
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Extra info for An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, Third Edition
R19c) As each dissociation is endothermic (absorbing energy rather than releasing it), these will depress the final temperature. The effect of dissociation on the calculated temperature becomes significant above ∼1700◦ C (2000 K). 7 Total thermal capacity/mole propane = Per mole of propane burnt. , Chase, 1998), provided that the final temperature is known. As this is not the case, a trial value is selected and the corresponding concentrations of H• , • OH, H2 , CO and O2 are calculated from the appropriate equilibrium constants (Moore, 1974; Lewis and von Elbe, 1987; Atkins and de Paula, 2006).
1). 2% propane in air. 1% for CH4 , C2 H6 , C3 H8 , n-C4 H10 and i-C4 H10 , respectively). R22) As the original mixture was ‘fuel lean’, the excess oxygen will contribute to the total thermal capacity of the mixture of products. 18, the final (adiabatic) flame temperature can be shown to be 1228◦ C (1501 K), well below that at which the effect of dissociation is significant. 20). There is evidence to suggest that the same value also applies to the upper flammability (fuel-rich) limit (Mullins and Penner, 1959; Stull, 1971), but it cannot be derived by the same method as the lower limit because the products will contain a complex mixture of pyrolysis and partially oxidized products from the parent fuel.
The question of uncertainty in the calculated heat release values obtained using the cone calorimeter is discussed by Enright and Fleischmann (1999). Although oxygen consumption calorimetry is predominantly the method of choice, the rate of heat release can also be estimated from measurements of the rates of formation of carbon dioxide and of carbon monoxide. This has been called ‘carbon dioxide generation (CDG) calorimetry’ (Tewarson and Ogden, 1992). 13. 15, in which calculated values of Hc,CO2 and Hc,CO are quoted.
An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, Third Edition by Dougal Drysdale(auth.)